1) Read information from Unit 1, Part 5. 2) Using the posted information in Unit

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1) Read information from Unit 1, Part 5.
2) Using the posted information in Unit 1, Part 5, and the textbook, write a five paragraph essay on the following question: What were the goals, reforms, and characteristics of the Progressive Era? How were those evident in the Progressive reform movements during the late 1800s and early 1900s?
3) Make sure to proofread your paper and submit it in the dropbox by 11:59 p.m. on Tuesday, May 24.
Papers should be typed, double spaced, left-aligned, and 12 point font with 1″ or 1.25″ margins. It must be submitted in Microsoft Word or as a PDF. Adobe PDF converter is free online. Papers with originality reports over 20% will receive a 0/10. Papers that cannot be accessed by the professor because of format issues will be scored at 0/10.
Essays should be written in essay format. For this course, this means you should write a five paragraph essay which includes the following:
1) an introduction that includes a thesis statement
2) three (or more) body paragraphs that provide details and specific examples to support your thesis statement
3) a conclusion that explains why the information is important
A thesis statement should fulfill the two following purposes:
1) answer the question
2) organize the essay
Essays will be graded on format, content, and grammar. They do not need a works cited page because the only sources used should be course materials (course readings and commentary).
Academic Integrity: All essays must be written in your own words. Essays will automatically be scanned by turnitin for plagiarism and originality. If your essay scores above 20%, your essay will receive a score of 0/10. In addition, your work will be reported for violating Lone Star’s academic integrity policy, which can be viewed on the college’s website and in the course syllabus. Possible results of this reportage include failing the class and expulsion from the Lone Star College system.
here is unit 1 part 5 :
Progressivism
Overview
The closing of the frontier West and disorganized reform movements across the nation convinced many Americans that the problems the country faced needed more attention and alternative solutions to those that had been tried and failed to fixed the issues facing the working class, African Americans, women, middle class reformers and farmers. Disparate reform efforts gave way to Progressivism as solutions to the problems facing the American people at the turn of twentieth century. Within the U.S. borders, Progressive reformers fought a large-scale battle to improve working and living conditions in the nation on a local, state, regional, and national level. The years between 1890 and America’s entry into World War I in 1917 marked one of the most significant periods of reform in the nation’s history. The Progressive Era also denoted an important shift in the role of government and dramatically changed the presence of the United States in the world.
The Progressive Era
Attempts to create an Imperialist empire in Southeast Asia coincided with a major period of reform within the United States during the last years of the nineteenth century and the first few decades of the twentieth century. Loosely labeled the Progressive Era, this time period was marked by a political movement and ideology that first began in England and reached North America by about 1890. The Progressive movement consisted of a series of loose movements that worked for social change and “progress” at a local, state, or national level (and some argue internationally through Imperialism). The continuation of three major problems in the urban Northeast provided the impetus for this movement that spread across the nation and evolved into numerous reform movements, societies, and groups. Continued industrialization, urbanization, and immigration convinced many Progressives that real change needed to occur and that earlier attempts to fix these problems had failed.
Although not necessarily labeled Progressives, some of the earliest reformers who argued for real change were writers, usually journalists, called Muckrakers (so-called because they dug up the “muck” or dirt of urban and industrial corruption). These Muckrakers, who received their name from future president Teddy Roosevelt, exposed countless incidences of political corruption and other evils in American society. In the early 1890s, a journalism revolution swept the nation’s news sources that would later be influential in American’s entrance into the Spanish American War. News magazines became slicker, sold more advertising, and used sensationalism or “yellow journalism” to sell papers. Besides The Journal and The World, magazines like McClure’s appealed to a broad audience and ran a number of stories denouncing such social beliefs as Social Darwinism and exposing major industries as filthy and hazardous to workers. These news outlets provided Progressive reformers a voice, and reform became a vital part of everyday American life.
Progressive Beliefs, Goals, and Characteristics
Progressive reform was by no means a monolithic movement. Some reformers worked for political reform while others focused on health issues. A number of Progressives sought improvement for women’s rights, while others attempted to improve working conditions for industrial laborers. Some of the major focuses of Progressive reforms included the following: changes to city governments by reforming or eliminating political machines; electoral reform that allowed for more direct democracy through presidential primaries and non-partisan elections (eventually resulting in the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment); trust busting by breaking up monopolies (for example, the Standard Oil Company was declared a monopoly and broken up in 1911); an increase in the conservation of natural resources led by President Teddy Roosevelt who oversaw the creation of the national parks system; increases in social justice through the regulation of the free market with labor reform and the creation of a welfare state; women’s rights through the passage of women’s suffrage (women’s right to vote); and racial justice by ending the practice of lynching.
Although Progressive reformers did not necessarily work together, most Progressives had a few major goals in common. Progressives sought public solutions to problems rather than depending on individual businesses, managers, or owners to fix problems. Progressives sought to reform, not revolutionize, the government. For the most part, Progressives believed that the democratic capitalist system of the United States was a workable system that just needed to be tweaked in order to work properly. One way to tweak the system was to expand the role of government in order to oversee progress and make progress uniform. Finally, Progressive reformers sought to equalize social justice with social order as much as possible. Jim Crow laws and lynchings in the South presented one of the biggest struggles for reformers. Jim Crow represented a threat to racial justice, but it also created a system of racial order to the southern society. Progressives realized that justice and order often worked against each other, and they were unable to achieve both.
Progressives faced several American beliefs that provided obstacles to major reform. American beliefs in the free market, private property, and individualism challenged Progressive ideals based on cooperation and government regulation. The United States’ Constitution strictly defined the powers of federal government and did not allow for increased oversight of commerce or trade. Thus, Progressives worked with a number of legal scholars to challenge interpretation of the Constitution. In addition, Progressives faced widespread disorganization of American workers as the AFL only unionized a skilled, male workers and not the larger work force. Politically, Progressives struggled to reform a regional two-party system based on a Democratic party with urban immigrant constituents in the northern industrial centers and southern whites in the former Confederate states. The Republican Party consisted of Black Republicans in the South and white nativists in the North. Regional parties hindered the national scope of the Progressives and caused many reforms to be sought only on a local or regional level.
Although Progressive reforms were widespread at the turn of the twentieth century, few Progressives exhibited all eight characteristics that historians have identified as being integral to Progressive ideals. First, Progressives were mostly white, middle-class or upper middle-class native born Americans (in other words, they were not recent immigrants to the United States). These reformers were motivated by genuine desire to help the poor and blamed social ills on immigrants. The solutions to this problem were to 1) “Americanize” or assimilate immigrants as much as possible (for instance, changing the dress, eating habits, and language of immigrants), 2) stop or hinder immigration, and 3) stop immigrants who were already in America from reproducing and creating a larger immigrant population.
Progressives also accepted industrialization to a degree. They believed that Americans should accept and embrace big business while attempting to reform it. The American system was largely a good system but needed increased federal regulation to continually improve it.
Progressives were also inspired by moral outrage and refused to accept the abuses they saw in society. One of the most important outrages was child labor and the maiming of many youth in factories.
Reformers were largely “environmentalists,” who believed that humans could improve their environment. Progressives believed that poverty was caused by the environment and was not a curse from God or hereditary. By improving the environment in which the poor lived, their lives could be improved.
Progressives also viewed members of society as interdependent. People were seen as social beings who would interact across racial, ethnic, and class lines. Thus, reformers sought common solutions to problems in order to help everyone. In order to do this, many Progressives sought to end prostitution in order to eradicate venereal diseases.
Progressive reformers were interventionists and actively worked for progress to occur. These reformers believed in intervention in private realms for the common good and focused on voluntary movements because they were the best option for achieving real change. Progressives then backed up voluntary movements with government or other public support. For example, Progressive reformers informed people of the evils of alcohol, provided social gathering places where alcohol was not served, and then worked to pass a Constitutional amendment that would ban the sale or production of alcohol in the United States (this eventually became the Eighteenth Amendment).
Evangelical Protestantism also proved to be a common characteristic of most Progressive reformers. Evangelicals wanted to rid the world of sin and create a perfect society that mirrored the future Kingdom of Heaven. The widespread belief of postmillennialism inspired this movement. Many postmillennialists believed that creating a perfect society by eliminating social problems would result in the return of Christ. Religious fervor drove many of the Progressive movements but failed to create the perfect society many Progressives sought.
Finally, Progressives combined their religious beliefs with an increased faith in science and experts. New disciplines of social sciences emerged during the Progressive Era and included such disciplines as psychology, sociology, and social work. Reformers often sought out experts who would supply several options for the best solutions (city planners were an example of this). This belief also inspired reformers to conduct in depth investigations that resulted in a large body of facts to support their case. The use of statistics, interviews, and research played an ever increasing role in Progressive reform.
Black Progressives
As Jim Crow laws became increasingly harsher, the black community responded and attempted to work for African American rights. The black church and a number of African Americans fought for black civil rights. Three particular black leaders received a significant amount of attention from the white world—Booker T. Washington, Ida B. Wells, and W.E.B. DuBois.
Booker T. Washington emerged in the 1880s and 1890s as the most important leader of the black middle class. Washington was a former slave who attended Hampton University during the 1870s. In 1881, he helped found Tuskegee Institute, located in Tuskegee, Alabama, as a place where African Americans could improve their status by learning life skills and undergoing industrial training. Washington placed an emphasis on education and hard work as a way for African Americans to gain a better life. He argued that learning life skills was more important than gaining a classical education (one focused on literature, social sciences, and other liberal arts) because he believed many former slaves had failed to learn certain trade skills during their slave experiences. Washington’s emphasis on the gradual improvement of African American status through continual hard work can best be seen in his 1895 Atlanta Compromise speech, which was given at the Atlanta Exposition Fair to a biracial audience. In his speech, Washington urged blacks to stop agitating for immediate political rights and focus on self-improvement. He argued that self-improvement was the best and surest way to win the respect of the white community. As the black community gained the respect of whites, whites would eventually accept blacks as equals. Washington’s speech encouraged many white leaders but angered a significant portion of the black community who was not content to wait.
Ida B. Wells was one African American leader who disagreed with Washington’s gradual approach to race relations. Wells was a young woman who lived in Memphis, Tennessee, and wrote a series of articles that rejected Washington’s advice. Her historical fame came as a result of another series of articles she published in a Memphis newspaper that exposed the lynching of three of her male friends. In her exposé, she identified the reason for the men’s lynching as directly related to the success of their grocery business rather than a sexual crime. Wells’ series studied lynching and identified several trends. First, she identified lynching as a way for the white community to protect white women from black men. As a result black men were taught to avoid contact with white women in order to escape any potential accusation. Wells compiled a huge amount of statistics and found that most lynchings were not “justified.” Instead, Wells claimed that white women often consented to sex with black men and that black male sexual activity presented a minor threat to white women. After the publication of the articles, Wells received so many threats from the white community that she eventually relocated to Chicago. While there she worked unsuccessfully to pass a federal anti-lynching law in order to halt the illegal killing of black men.
The third African American leader, W.E.B. DuBois, rejected Washington’s ideas of compromise and encouraged the black community to openly agitate for full democratic rights. DuBois identified and supported the “talented tenth,” a name he gave to the portion of the African American community that represented the most educated and viable option for black leadership. DuBois was the first African American to receive a PhD from Harvard and fully supported classical education (rather than the practical education Washington advocated) for the black community. In 1905, DuBois helped found the Niagara Movement, a group that called for the end of segregation in politics, economics, and society. The Niagara Movement evolved into the NAACP (the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), which was founded in 1909. The NAACP was (and still is) an interracial group. The future first lady Eleanor Roosevelt and Ida B. Wells were also co-founders of the NAACP.
Progressive Movements
The Temperance Movement was the largest and longest-lasting of all the reform movements in the United States. It had started early in the nineteenth century and became a significant focus of the Progressive Reformers by the mid-nineteenth century. Two organizations, in particular, worked for the reduction of the consumption of alcohol and for reform of the saloons where it was sold. These groups were the Women’s Christian Temperance Union and the Anti-Saloon League. Many reformers had long been concerned with the effect of alcohol on women and children, even though they were not usually the ones consuming the alcohol. Many working class men spent their entire paychecks on alcohol, which resulted in no money to raise their family. Also, some men became violent and beat their children and wives in their drunken states. In addition, limiting alcohol consumption was part of the assimilation process. Many Native Whites were considered “drys” and fought for the temperance of alcohol while the vast majority of immigrants were “wets”. Catholic immigrants were more typically involved in drinking than Protestant native borns, which indicated a problem for Progressive reformers. Also, progressives believed that ending the sale of alcohol in saloons would break the power of political machines over immigrant populations, especially Irish and German immigrants. The ultimate of the Temperance Movement did not occur until the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment in 1920, which prohibited the production and sale of alcohol, not the consumption of it. Due to progressive belief in intervention, reformers believed alcohol consumption would decrease if there was no legal way to make or purchase the substance. The Eighteenth Amendment was highly controversial and largely ineffective and was repealed by FDR during the Great Depression in 1933 with the Twenty-first Amendment.

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